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Vol. 9,  No. 11, 2022

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The DAO to MetaControl for MetaSystems in Metaverses: The System of Parallel Control Systems for Knowledge Automation and Control Intelligence in CPSS
Fei-Yue Wang
2022, 9(11): 1899-1908. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.106022
Abstract(245) HTML (11) PDF(117)
An investigation and outline of MetaControl and DeControl in Metaverses for control intelligence and knowledge automation are presented. Prescriptive control with prescriptive knowledge and parallel philosophy is proposed as the starting point for the new control philosophy and technology, especially for computational control of metasystems in cyber-physical-social systems. We argue that circular causality, the generalized feedback mechanism for complex and purposive systems, should be adapted as the fundamental principle for control and management of metasystems with metacomplexity in metaverses. Particularly, an interdisciplinary approach is suggested for MetaControl and DeControl as a new form of intelligent control based on five control metaverses: MetaVerses, MultiVerses, InterVerses, TransVerse, and DeepVerses.
Receding-Horizon Trajectory Planning for Under-Actuated Autonomous Vehicles Based on Collaborative Neurodynamic Optimization
Jiasen Wang, Jun Wang, Qing-Long Han
2022, 9(11): 1909-1923. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105524
Abstract(324) HTML (11) PDF(128)
This paper addresses a major issue in planning the trajectories of under-actuated autonomous vehicles based on neurodynamic optimization. A receding-horizon vehicle trajectory planning task is formulated as a sequential global optimization problem with weighted quadratic navigation functions and obstacle avoidance constraints based on given vehicle goal configurations. The feasibility of the formulated optimization problem is guaranteed under derived conditions. The optimization problem is sequentially solved via collaborative neurodynamic optimization in a neurodynamics-driven trajectory planning method/procedure. Simulation results with under-actuated unmanned wheeled vehicles and autonomous surface vehicles are elaborated to substantiate the efficacy of the neurodynamics-driven trajectory planning method.
A Zonotopic-Based Watermarking Design to Detect Replay Attacks
Carlos Trapiello, Vicenç Puig
2022, 9(11): 1924-1938. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105944
Abstract(232) HTML (10) PDF(65)

This paper suggests the use of zonotopes for the design of watermark signals. The proposed approach exploits the recent analogy found between stochastic and zonotopic-based estimators to propose a deterministic counterpart to current approaches that study the replay attack in the context of stationary Gaussian processes. In this regard, the zonotopic analogous case where the control loop is closed based on the estimates of a zonotopic Kalman filter (ZKF) is analyzed. This formulation allows to propose a new performance metric that is related to the Frobenius norm of the prediction zonotope. Hence, the steady-state operation of the system can be related with the size of the minimal Robust Positive Invariant set of the estimation error. Furthermore, analogous expressions concerning the impact that a zonotopic/Gaussian watermark signal has on the system operation are derived. Finally, a novel zonotopically bounded watermark signal that ensures the attack detection by causing the residual vector to exit the healthy residual set during the replay phase of the attack is introduced. The proposed approach is illustrated in simulation using a quadruple-tank process.

Exponential-Alpha Safety Criteria of a Class of Dynamic Systems With Barrier Functions
Zheren Zhu, Yi Chai, Zhimin Yang, Chenghong Huang
2022, 9(11): 1939-1951. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2020.1003408
Abstract(924) HTML (496) PDF(70)
A classic kind of researches about the operational safety criterion for dynamic systems with barrier function can be roughly summarized as functional relationship, denoted by $\oplus $, between the barrier function and its first derivative for time t, where $\oplus $ can be “=”, “$< $”, or “$> $”, etc. This article draws on the form of the stable condition expression for finite time stability to formulate a novel kind of relaxed safety judgement criteria called exponential-alpha safety criteria. Moreover, we initially explore to use the control barrier function under exponential-alpha safety criteria to achieve the control for the dynamic system operational safety. In addition, derived from the actual process systems, we propose multi-hypersphere methods which are used to construct barrier functions and improved them for three types of special spatial relationships between the safe state set and the unsafe state set, where both of them can be spatially divided into multiple subsets. And the effectiveness of the proposed safety criteria are demonstrated by simulation examples.
A Bi-population Cooperative Optimization Algorithm Assisted by an Autoencoder for Medium-scale Expensive Problems
Meiji Cui, Li Li, MengChu Zhou, Jiankai Li, Abdullah Abusorrah, Khaled Sedraoui
2022, 9(11): 1952-1966. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105425
Abstract(271) HTML (63) PDF(64)
This study presents an autoencoder-embedded optimization (AEO) algorithm which involves a bi-population cooperative strategy for medium-scale expensive problems (MEPs). A huge search space can be compressed to an informative low-dimensional space by using an autoencoder as a dimension reduction tool. The search operation conducted in this low space facilitates the population with fast convergence towards the optima. To strike the balance between exploration and exploitation during optimization, two phases of a tailored teaching-learning-based optimization (TTLBO) are adopted to coevolve solutions in a distributed fashion, wherein one is assisted by an autoencoder and the other undergoes a regular evolutionary process. Also, a dynamic size adjustment scheme according to problem dimension and evolutionary progress is proposed to promote information exchange between these two phases and accelerate evolutionary convergence speed. The proposed algorithm is validated by testing benchmark functions with dimensions varying from 50 to 200. As indicated in our experiments, TTLBO is suitable for dealing with medium-scale problems and thus incorporated into the AEO framework as a base optimizer. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms for MEPs, AEO shows extraordinarily high efficiency for these challenging problems, thus opening new directions for various evolutionary algorithms under AEO to tackle MEPs and greatly advancing the field of medium-scale computationally expensive optimization.
Adaptive Generalized Eigenvector Estimating Algorithm for Hermitian Matrix Pencil
Yingbin Gao
2022, 9(11): 1967-1979. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1003955
Abstract(723) HTML (411) PDF(54)

Generalized eigenvector plays an essential role in the signal processing field. In this paper, we present a novel neural network learning algorithm for estimating the generalized eigenvector of a Hermitian matrix pencil. Differently from some traditional algorithms, which need to select the proper values of learning rates before using, the proposed algorithm does not need a learning rate and is very suitable for real applications. Through analyzing all of the equilibrium points, it is proven that if and only if the weight vector of the neural network is equal to the generalized eigenvector corresponding to the largest generalized eigenvalue of a Hermitian matrix pencil, the proposed algorithm reaches to convergence status. By using the deterministic discrete-time (DDT) method, some convergence conditions, which can be satisfied with probability 1, are also obtained to guarantee its convergence. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a fast convergence speed and good numerical stability. The real application demonstrates its effectiveness in tracking the optimal vector of beamforming.

Frequency Regulation of Power Systems With a Wind Farm by Sliding-Mode-Based Design
Zhiwen Deng, Chang Xu
2022, 9(11): 1980-1989. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105407
Abstract(335) HTML (49) PDF(51)

Load frequency regulation is an essential auxiliary service used in dealing with the challenge of frequency stability in power systems that utilize an increasing proportion of wind power. We investigate a load frequency control method for multi-area interconnected power systems integrated with wind farms, aimed to eliminate the frequency deviation in each area and the tie-line power deviation between different areas. The method explores the derivative and integral terminal sliding mode control technology to solve the problem of load frequency regulation. Such technology employs the concept of relative degrees. However, the subsystems of wind-integrated interconnected power systems have different relative degrees, complicating the control design. This study develops the derivative and integral terminal sliding-mode-based controllers for these subsystems, realizing the load frequency regulation. Meanwhile, closed-loop stability is guaranteed with the theory of Lyapunov stability. Moreover, both a thermal power system and a wind power system are applied to provide frequency support in this study. Considering both constant and variable external disturbances, several numerical simulations were carried out in a two-area thermal power system with a wind farm. The results demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the developed method.

Collective Entity Alignment for Knowledge Fusion of Power Grid Dispatching Knowledge Graphs
Linyao Yang, Chen Lv, Xiao Wang, Ji Qiao, Weiping Ding, Jun Zhang, Fei-Yue Wang
2022, 9(11): 1990-2004. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105947
Abstract(291) HTML (37) PDF(82)

Knowledge graphs (KGs) have been widely accepted as powerful tools for modeling the complex relationships between concepts and developing knowledge-based services. In recent years, researchers in the field of power systems have explored KGs to develop intelligent dispatching systems for increasingly large power grids. With multiple power grid dispatching knowledge graphs (PDKGs) constructed by different agencies, the knowledge fusion of different PDKGs is useful for providing more accurate decision supports. To achieve this, entity alignment that aims at connecting different KGs by identifying equivalent entities is a critical step. Existing entity alignment methods cannot integrate useful structural, attribute, and relational information while calculating entities’ similarities and are prone to making many-to-one alignments, thus can hardly achieve the best performance. To address these issues, this paper proposes a collective entity alignment model that integrates three kinds of available information and makes collective counterpart assignments. This model proposes a novel knowledge graph attention network (KGAT) to learn the embeddings of entities and relations explicitly and calculates entities’ similarities by adaptively incorporating the structural, attribute, and relational similarities. Then, we formulate the counterpart assignment task as an integer programming (IP) problem to obtain one-to-one alignments. We not only conduct experiments on a pair of PDKGs but also evaluate our model on three commonly used cross-lingual KGs. Experimental comparisons indicate that our model outperforms other methods and provides an effective tool for the knowledge fusion of PDKGs.

Dynamic Scheduling and Path Planning of Automated Guided Vehicles in Automatic Container Terminal
Lijun Yue, Houming Fan
2022, 9(11): 2005-2019. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105950
Abstract(839) HTML (229) PDF(128)

The uninterrupted operation of the quay crane (QC) ensures that the large container ship can depart port within laytime, which effectively reduces the handling cost for the container terminal and ship owners. The QC waiting caused by automated guided vehicles (AGVs) delay in the uncertain environment can be alleviated by dynamic scheduling optimization. A dynamic scheduling process is introduced in this paper to solve the AGV scheduling and path planning problems, in which the scheduling scheme determines the starting and ending nodes of paths, and the choice of paths between nodes affects the scheduling of subsequent AGVs. This work proposes a two-stage mixed integer optimization model to minimize the transportation cost of AGVs under the constraint of laytime. A dynamic optimization algorithm, including the improved rule-based heuristic algorithm and the integration of the Dijkstra algorithm and the Q-Learning algorithm, is designed to solve the optimal AGV scheduling and path schemes. A new conflict avoidance strategy based on graph theory is also proposed to reduce the probability of path conflicts between AGVs. Numerical experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm over existing methods.

Predefined-Time Backstepping Stabilization of Autonomous Nonlinear Systems
Alison Garza-Alonso, Michael Basin, Pablo Cesar Rodriguez-Ramirez
2022, 9(11): 2020-2022. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105953
Abstract(107) HTML (4) PDF(77)
Dual-Branch Multi-Level Feature Aggregation Network for Pansharpening
Gui Cheng, Zhenfeng Shao, Jiaming Wang, Xiao Huang, Chaoya Dang
2022, 9(11): 2023-2026. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105956
Abstract(76) HTML (12) PDF(28)
Contrastive Consensus Graph Learning for Multi-View Clustering
Shiping Wang, Xincan Lin, Zihan Fang, Shide Du, Guobao Xiao
2022, 9(11): 2027-2030. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105959
Abstract(112) HTML (9) PDF(38)
Self-Supervised Entity Alignment Based on Multi- Modal Contrastive Learning
Bo Liu, Ruoyi Song, Yuejia Xiang, Junbo Du, Weijian Ruan, Jinhui Hu
2022, 9(11): 2031-2033. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105962
Abstract(78) HTML (9) PDF(28)
On RNN-Based k-WTA Models With Time-Dependent Inputs
Mei Liu, Mingsheng Shang
2022, 9(11): 2034-2036. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105932
Abstract(95) HTML (7) PDF(32)
Recursive Filtering for Nonlinear Systems With Self-Interferences Over Full-Duplex Relay Networks
Hailong Tan, Bo Shen, Qi Li, Wei Qian
2022, 9(11): 2037-2040. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2022.105965
Abstract(102) HTML (5) PDF(36)