A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation

Vol. 2,  No. 3, 2015

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Table of Contents
2015, 2(3): .
Guest Editorial for Special Issue on Cyber-Physical Systems
Youxian Sun, Xinping Guan, Jiming Chen, Yilin Mo
2015, 2(3): 233-234.
Abstract(1073) HTML (27) PDF(5)
Robust Dataset Classification Approach Based on Neighbor Searching and Kernel Fuzzy C-Means
Li Liu, Aolei Yang, Wenju Zhou, Xiaofeng Zhang, Minrui Fei, Xiaowei Tu
2015, 2(3): 235-247.
Abstract(1162) HTML (22) PDF(6)
Dataset classification is an essential fundament of computational intelligence in cyber-physical systems (CPS). Due to the complexity of CPS dataset classification and the uncertainty of clustering number, this paper focuses on clarifying the dynamic behavior of acceleration dataset which is achieved from micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) and complex image segmentation. To reduce the impact of parameters uncertainties with dataset classification, a novel robust dataset classification approach is proposed based on neighbor searching and kernel fuzzy c-means (NSKFCM) methods. Some optimized strategies, including neighbor searching, controlling clustering shape and adaptive distance kernel function, are employed to solve the issues of number of clusters, the stability and consistency of classification, respectively. Numerical experiments finally demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method.
Decentralized Event-Triggered Average Consensus for Multi-Agent Systems in CPSs with Communication Constraints
Zhaoxia Wang, Minrui Fei, Dajun Du, Min Zheng
2015, 2(3): 248-257.
Abstract(1087) HTML (18) PDF(9)
The paper investigates decentralized event-triggered average consensus problem for multi-agent systems in cyberphysical systems (CPSs) with communication constraints. To reduce communication burden and improve the communication efficiency of multi-agent systems in CPSs, event-trigger is distributed at subsystem/agent level. A multi-agent system is then modeled as a reduced dimension hybrid system by taking into account decentralized event-triggered mechanism, communication delays and data dropouts within one framework. Some sufficient conditions for average consensus of each agent and an upper bound of communication delay and maximal allowable number of successive data dropouts (MANSD) are obtained, which can conveniently provide the relationship between the triggering parameters, communication constraints and the system stability. Specially, the quantitative relationship between the triggering parameters, MANSD and the system stability is derived. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
An Algebraic Detection Approach for Control Systems under Multiple Stochastic Cyber-attacks
Yumei Li, Holger Voos, Mohamed Darouach, Changchun Hua
2015, 2(3): 258-266.
Abstract(1145) HTML (21) PDF(4)
In order to compromise a target control system successfully, hackers possibly attempt to launch multiple cyberattacks aiming at multiple communication channels of the control system. However, the problem of detecting multiple cyber-attacks has been hardly investigated so far. Therefore, this paper deals with the detection of multiple stochastic cyber-attacks aiming at multiple communication channels of a control system. Our goal is to design a detector for the control system under multiple cyberattacks. Based on frequency-domain transformation technique and auxiliary detection tools, an algebraic detection approach is proposed. By applying the presented approach, residual information caused by different attacks is obtained respectively and anomalies in the control system are detected. Sufficient and necessary conditions guaranteeing the detectability of the multiple stochastic cyber-attacks are obtained. The presented detection approach is simple and straightforward. Finally, two simulation examples are provided, and the simulation results show that the detection approach is effective and feasible.
An Approach of Distributed Joint Optimization for Cluster-based Wireless Sensor Networks
Zhixin Liu, Yazhou Yuan, Xinping Guan, Xinbin Li
2015, 2(3): 267-273.
Abstract(1142) HTML (24) PDF(4)
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are energyconstrained, so energy saving is one of the most important issues in typical applications. The clustered WSN topology is considered in this paper. To achieve the balance of energy consumption and utility of network resources, we explicitly model and factor the effect of power and rate. A novel joint optimization model is proposed with the protection for cluster head. By the mean of a choice of two appropriate sub-utility functions, the distributed iterative algorithm is obtained. The convergence of the proposed iterative algorithm is proved analytically. We consider general dual decomposition method to realize variable separation and distributed computation, which is practical in large-scale sensor networks. Numerical results show that the proposed joint optimal algorithm converges to the optimal power allocation and rate transmission, and validate the performance in terms of prolonging of network lifetime and improvement of throughput.
Dynamic Coverage with Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks in Underwater Environment
Xiaoyuan Luo, Liu Feng, Jing Yan, Xinping Guan
2015, 2(3): 274-281.
Abstract(1065) HTML (22) PDF(9)
This paper studies the problem of dynamic coverage with wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs) in underwater environment. Different from most existing works, the WSANs consist of two kinds of nodes, i.e., sensor nodes (SNs) which cannot move autonomously and actor nodes (ANs) which can move autonomously according to the performance requirement. The problem of how to coordinate two kinds of nodes to facilitate dynamic coverage in underwater environment is challenging due to their heterogeneous capabilities. To reduce redundancy of communication links and improve connectivity between ANs and SNs in underwater WSANs, a min-weighted rigid graph based topology optimization scheme is first developed, such that the underwater communication energy consumption can be saved. With the optimized topology, a dynamic coverage strategy is proposed to improve the coverage among SNs and ANs for underwater WSAN where underwater fluid motions are considered. Furthermore, it is proved that the network coverage area is connected by using the min-weighted rigid graph. Finally, simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the main results.
End-to-end Delay Analysis for Mixed-criticality WirelessHART Networks
Xi Jin, Jintao Wang, Peng Zeng
2015, 2(3): 282-289.
Abstract(1100) HTML (19) PDF(5)
WirelessHART, as a robust and reliable wireless protocol, has been widely-used in industrial wireless sensoractuator networks. Its real-time performance has been extensively studied, but limited to the single criticality case. Many advanced applications have mixed-criticality communications, where different data flows come with different levels of importance or criticality. Hence, in this paper, we study the real-time mixedcriticality communication using WirelessHART protocol, and propose an end-to-end delay analysis approach based on fixed priority scheduling. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that introduces the concept of mixed-criticality into wireless sensor-actuator networks. Evaluation results show the effectiveness and efficacy of our approach.
Cost Minimization of Wireless Sensor Networks with Unlimited-lifetime Energy for Monitoring Oil Pipelines
Changqing Xia, Wei Liu, Qingxu Deng
2015, 2(3): 290-295.
Abstract(1116) HTML (19) PDF(3)
Cyber-physical-system (CPS) has been widely used in both civil and military applications. Wireless sensor network (WSN) as the part and parcel of CPS faces energy problem because sensors are battery powered, which results in limited lifetime of the network. To address this energy problem, we take advantage of energy harvesting device (EHD) and study how to indefinitely prolong oil pipeline monitoring network lifetime by reasonable selecting EHD. Firstly, we propose a general strategy worst case-energy balance strategy (WC-EBS), which defines worst case energy consumption (WCEC) as the maximum energy sensor node could expend for oil pipeline monitoring WSN. When the energy collected by EHD is equal or greater than WCEC, network can have an unlimited lifetime. However, energy harvesting rate is proportional to the price of EHD, WC-EBS will cause high network cost. To reduce network cost, we present two optimization strategies, optimization workloadenergy balance strategy (OW-EBS) and optimization first nodeenergy balance strategy (OF-EBS). The main idea of OW-EBS is to cut down WCEC by reducing critical node transmission workload; OF-EBS confirms critical node by optimizing each sensor node transmission range, then we get the optimal energy harvesting rate in OF-EBS. The experimental results demonstrate that OF-EBS can indefinitely extend network lifetime with lower cost than WC-EBS and OW-EBS, and energy harvesting rate P in each strategy satisfies POF-EBSPOW-EBSPWC-EBS.
A Stochastic Programming Strategy in Microgrid Cyber Physical Energy System for Energy Optimal Operation
Hepeng Li, Chuanzhi Zang, Peng Zeng, Haibin Yu, Zhongwen Li
2015, 2(3): 296-303.
Abstract(1070) HTML (17) PDF(9)
This paper focuses on the energy optimal operation problem of microgrids (MGs) under stochastic environment. The deterministic method of MGs operation is often uneconomical because it fails to consider the high randomness of unconventional energy resources. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel operation approach combining the uncertainty in the physical world with modeling strategy in the cyber system. This paper proposes an energy scheduling optimization strategy based on stochastic programming model by considering the uncertainty in MGs. The goal is to minimize the expected operation cost of MGs. The uncertainties are modeled based on autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model to expose the effects of physical world on cyber world. Through the comparison of the simulation results with deterministic method, it is shown that the effectiveness and robustness of proposed stochastic energy scheduling optimization strategy for MGs are valid.
Distributed Secondary Control and Optimal Power Sharing in Microgrids
Gang Chen, Ening Feng
2015, 2(3): 304-312.
Abstract(1080) HTML (20) PDF(9)
We address the control problem of microgrids and present a fully distributed control system which consists of primary controller, secondary controller, and optimal active power sharing controller. Different from the existing control structure in microgrids, all these controllers are implemented as local controllers at each distributed generator. Thus, the requirement for a central controller is obviated. The performance analysis of the proposed control systems is provided, and the finite-time convergence properties for distributed secondary frequency and voltage controllers are achieved. Moreover, the distributed control system possesses the optimal active power sharing property. In the end, a microgrid test system is investigated to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.
Water Supply Networks as Cyber-physical Systems and Controllability Analysis
Yongsong Wei, Shaoyuan Li
2015, 2(3): 313-319.
Abstract(1096) HTML (17) PDF(6)
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) is a system of systems which consists of many subsystems that can stand alone in an individual manner and can be taken as a typical complex network. CPS can be applied in the critical infrastructures such as water supply networks, energy supply systems, and so on. In this paper, we analyze the structure of modern city water supply networks from the view of CPS theory. we use complex network theory to build an undirected and unweighted complex network model for the water supply networks to investigate the structural properties, and present the structure of the water supply networks and detect communities by a spectral analysis of the Laplacian matrix. Then, we analyze the structure and controllability of water supply networks by the structural controllability method. The results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed complex network model.
Cyber-physical-social System in Intelligent Transportation
Gang Xiong, Fenghua Zhu, Xiwei Liu, Xisong Dong, Wuling Huang, Songhang Chen, Kai Zhao
2015, 2(3): 320-333.
Abstract(1188) HTML (26) PDF(22)
A cyber-physical system (CPS) is composed of a physical system and its corresponding cyber systems that are tightly fused at all scales and levels. CPS is helpful to improve the controllability, efficiency and reliability of a physical system, such as vehicle collision avoidance and zero-net energy buildings systems. It has become a hot R&D and practical area from US to EU and other countries. In fact, most of physical systems and their cyber systems are designed, built and used by human beings in the social and natural environments. So, social systems must be of the same importance as their CPSs. The indivisible cyber, physical and social parts constitute the cyber-physical-social system (CPSS), a typical complex system and it's a challengeable problem to control and manage it under traditional theories and methods. An artificial systems, computational experiments and parallel execution (ACP) methodology is introduced based on which data-driven models are applied to social system. Artificial systems, i.e., cyber systems, are applied for the equivalent description of physical-social system (PSS). Computational experiments are applied for control plan validation. And parallel execution finally realizes the stepwise control and management of CPSS. Finally, a CPSS-based intelligent transportation system (ITS) is discussed as a case study, and its architecture, three parts, and application are described in detail.
Cyber-physical Modeling and Control of Crowd of Pedestrians: A Review and New Framework
Kecai Cao, YangQuan Chen, Dan Stuart, Dong Yue
2015, 2(3): 334-344.
Abstract(1078) HTML (20) PDF(4)
Recent advances in modeling and control of crowd of pedestrians are briefly surveyed in this paper. Possibilities of applying fractional calculus in the modeling of crowd of pedestrians have been shortly reviewed and discussed from different aspects such as descriptions of motion, interactions of long range and effects of memory. Control of the crowd of pedestrians have also been formulated using the framework of cyber-physical systems and been realized using networked Segways with onboard emergency response personnels to regulate the velocity and flux of the crowd. Platform for verification of the theoretical results are also provided in this paper.