A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation

Vol. 5,  No. 3, 2018

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Advances in Vision-Based Lane Detection: Algorithms, Integration, Assessment, and Perspectives on ACP-Based Parallel Vision
Yang Xing, Chen Lv, Long Chen, Huaji Wang, Hong Wang, Dongpu Cao, Efstathios Velenis, Fei-Yue Wang
2018, 5(3): 645-661. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511063
Abstract(2165) HTML (1108) PDF(393)
Lane detection is a fundamental aspect of most current advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). A large number of existing results focus on the study of vision-based lane detection methods due to the extensive knowledge background and the low-cost of camera devices. In this paper, previous visionbased lane detection studies are reviewed in terms of three aspects, which are lane detection algorithms, integration, and evaluation methods. Next, considering the inevitable limitations that exist in the camera-based lane detection system, the system integration methodologies for constructing more robust detection systems are reviewed and analyzed. The integration methods are further divided into three levels, namely, algorithm, system, and sensor. Algorithm level combines different lane detection algorithms while system level integrates other object detection systems to comprehensively detect lane positions. Sensor level uses multi-modal sensors to build a robust lane recognition system. In view of the complexity of evaluating the detection system, and the lack of common evaluation procedure and uniform metrics in past studies, the existing evaluation methods and metrics are analyzed and classified to propose a better evaluation of the lane detection system. Next, a comparison of representative studies is performed. Finally, a discussion on the limitations of current lane detection systems and the future developing trends toward an Artificial Society, Computational experiment-based parallel lane detection framework is proposed.
Deep Scalogram Representations for Acoustic Scene Classification
Zhao Ren, Kun Qian, Zixing Zhang, Vedhas Pandit, Alice Baird, Björn Schuller
2018, 5(3): 662-669. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511066
Abstract(1203) HTML (827) PDF(182)
Spectrogram representations of acoustic scenes have achieved competitive performance for acoustic scene classification. Yet, the spectrogram alone does not take into account a substantial amount of time-frequency information. In this study, we present an approach for exploring the benefits of deep scalogram representations, extracted in segments from an audio stream. The approach presented firstly transforms the segmented acoustic scenes into bump and morse scalograms, as well as spectrograms; secondly, the spectrograms or scalograms are sent into pre-trained convolutional neural networks; thirdly, the features extracted from a subsequent fully connected layer are fed into (bidirectional) gated recurrent neural networks, which are followed by a single highway layer and a softmax layer; finally, predictions from these three systems are fused by a margin sampling value strategy. We then evaluate the proposed approach using the acoustic scene classification data set of 2017 IEEE AASP Challenge on Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events (DCASE). On the evaluation set, an accuracy of 64.0% from bidirectional gated recurrent neural networks is obtained when fusing the spectrogram and the bump scalogram, which is an improvement on the 61.0% baseline result provided by the DCASE 2017 organisers. This result shows that extracted bump scalograms are capable of improving the classification accuracy, when fusing with a spectrogram-based system.
A Mode-Switching Motion Control System for Reactive Interaction and Surface Following Using Industrial Robots
Danial Nakhaeinia, Pierre Payeur, Robert Laganière
2018, 5(3): 670-682. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511069
Abstract(1257) HTML (788) PDF(88)
This work proposes a sensor-based control system for fully automated object detection and exploration (surface following) with a redundant industrial robot. The control system utilizes both offline and online trajectory planning for reactive interaction with objects of different shapes and color using RGBD vision and proximity/contact sensors feedback where no prior knowledge of the objects is available. The RGB-D sensor is used to collect raw 3D information of the environment. The data is then processed to segment an object of interest in the scene. In order to completely explore the object, a coverage path planning technique is proposed using a dynamic 3D occupancy grid method to generate a primary (offline) trajectory. However, RGB-D sensors are very sensitive to lighting and provide only limited accuracy on the depth measurements. Therefore, the coverage path planning is then further assisted by a real-time adaptive path planning using a fuzzy self-tuning proportional integral derivative (PID) controller. The latter allows the robot to dynamically update the 3D model by a specially designed instrumented compliant wrist and adapt to the surfaces it approaches or touches. A modeswitching scheme is also proposed to efficiently integrate and smoothly switch between the interaction modes under certain conditions. Experimental results using a CRS-F3 manipulator equipped with a custom-built compliant wrist demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed method.
Adaptive Proportional-Derivative Sliding Mode Control Law With Improved Transient Performance for Underactuated Overhead Crane Systems
Menghua Zhang, Xin Ma, Rui Song, Xuewen Rong, Guohui Tian, Xincheng Tian, Yibin Li
2018, 5(3): 683-690. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511072
Abstract(1158) HTML (793) PDF(94)
In this paper, an adaptive proportional-derivative sliding mode control (APD-SMC) law, is proposed for 2D underactuated overhead crane systems. The proposed controller has the advantages of simple structure, easy to implement of PD control, strong robustness of SMC with respect to external disturbances and uncertain system parameters, and adaptation for unknown system dynamics associated with the feedforward parts. In the proposed APD-SMC law, the PD control part is used to stabilize the controlled system, the SMC part is used to compensate the external disturbances and system uncertainties, and the adaptive control part is utilized to estimate the unknown system parameters. The coupling behavior between the trolley movement and the payload swing is enhanced and, therefore, the transient performance of the proposed controller is improved. The Lyapunov techniques and the LaSalle's invariance theorem are employed in to support the theoretical derivations. Experimental results are provided to validate the superior performance of the proposed control law.
On "Over-Sized" High-Gain Practical Observers for Nonlinear Systems
Daniele Carnevale, Corrado Possieri, Antonio Tornambè
2018, 5(3): 691-698. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511075
Abstract(1014) HTML (775) PDF(46)
In this paper, it is shown that the performances of a class of high-gain practical observers can be improved by estimating the time derivatives of the output up to an order that is greater than the dimension of the system, which is assumed to be in observability form and, possibly, time-varying. Such an improvement is achieved without increasing the gain of the observers, thus allowing their use in a wide variety of control and identification applications.
H Tracking Control for Switched LPV Systems With an Application to Aero-Engines
Kongwei Zhu, Jun Zhao, Georgi M. Dimirovski
2018, 5(3): 699-705. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510025
Abstract(1049) HTML (769) PDF(114)
This paper focuses on the H model reference tracking control for a switched linear parameter-varying (LPV) model representing an aero-engine. The switched LPV aero-engine model is built based on a family of linearized models. Multiple parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions technique is used to design a tracking control law for the desirable H tracking performance. A control synthesis condition is formulated in terms of the solvability of a matrix optimization problem. Simulation result on the aero-engine model shows the feasibility and validity of the switching tracking control scheme.
Neural-Network-Based Terminal Sliding Mode Control for Frequency Stabilization of Renewable Power Systems
Dianwei Qian, Guoliang Fan
2018, 5(3): 706-717. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511078
Abstract(1070) HTML (788) PDF(116)
This paper addresses a terminal sliding mode control (T-SMC) method for load frequency control (LFC) in renewable power systems with generation rate constraints (GRC). A two-area interconnected power system with wind turbines is taken into account for simulation studies. The terminal sliding mode controllers are assigned in each area to achieve the LFC goal. The increasing complexity of the nonlinear power system aggravates the effects of system uncertainties. Radial basis function neural networks (RBF NNs) are designed to approximate the entire uncertainties. The terminal sliding mode controllers and the RBF NNs work in parallel to solve the LFC problem for the renewable power system. Some simulation results illustrate the feasibility and validity of the presented scheme.
Gait Recognition by Cross Wavelet Transform and Graph Model
Sagar Arun More, Pramod Jagan Deore
2018, 5(3): 718-726. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511081
Abstract(1163) HTML (800) PDF(78)
In this paper, a multi-view gait based human recognition system using the fusion of two kinds of features is proposed. We use cross wavelet transform to extract dynamic feature and bipartite graph model to extract static feature which are coefficients of quadrature mirror filter (QMF)-graph wavelet filter bank. Feature fusion is done after normalization. For normalization of features, min-max rule is used and mean-variance method is used to find weights for normalized features. Euclidean distance between each feature vector and center of the cluster which is obtained by k-means clustering is used as similarity measure in Bayesian framework. Experiments performed on widely used CASIA B gait database show that, the fusion of these two feature sets preserve discriminant information. We report 99.90% average recognition rate.
Containment Control of Fractional Order Multi-Agent Systems With Time Delays
Hongyong Yang, Fuyong Wang, Fujun Han
2018, 5(3): 727-732. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510211
Abstract(1091) HTML (816) PDF(81)
In complex environments, many distributed multiagent systems are described with the fractional-order dynamics. In this paper, containment control of fractional-order multiagent systems with multiple leader agents are studied. Firstly, the collaborative control of fractional-order multi-agent systems (FOMAS) with multiple leaders is analyzed in a directed network without delays. Then, by using Laplace transform and frequency domain theorem, containment consensus of networked FOMAS with time delays is investigated in an undirected network, and a critical value of delays is obtained to ensure the containment consensus of FOMAS. Finally, numerical simulations are shown to verify the results.
Preparation of Hadamard Gate for Open Quantum Systems by the Lyapunov Control Method
Nourallah Ghaeminezhad, Shuang Cong
2018, 5(3): 733-740. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511084
Abstract(1020) HTML (757) PDF(118)
In this paper, the control laws based on the Lyapunov stability theorem are designed for a two-level open quantum system to prepare the Hadamard gate, which is an important basic gate for the quantum computers. First, the density matrix interested in quantum system is transferred to vector formation. Then, in order to obtain a controller with higher accuracy and faster convergence rate, a Lyapunov function based on the matrix logarithm function is designed. After that, a procedure for the controller design is derived based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. Finally, the numerical simulation experiments for an amplitude damping Markovian open quantum system are performed to prepare the desired quantum gate. The simulation results show that the preparation of Hadamard gate based on the proposed control laws can achieve the fidelity up to 0.9985 for the different coupling strengths.
Group Decision Making With Consistency of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Preference Relations Under Uncertainty
Yang Lin, Yingming Wang
2018, 5(3): 741-748. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510037
Abstract(998) HTML (792) PDF(53)
Intuitionistic fuzzy preference relation (IFPR) is a suitable technique to express fuzzy preference information by decision makers (DMs). This paper aims to provide a group decision making method where DMs use the IFPRs to indicate their preferences with uncertain weights. To begin with, a model to derive weight vectors of alternatives from IFPRs based on multiplicative consistency is presented. Specifically, for any IFPR, by minimizing its absolute deviation from the corresponding consistent IFPR, the weight vectors are generated. Secondly, a method to determine relative weights of DMs depending on preference information is developed. After that we prioritize alternatives based on the obtained weights considering the risk preference of DMs. Finally, this approach is applied to the problem of technical risks assessment of armored equipment to illustrate the applicability and superiority of the proposed method.
Dynamic Case Retrieval Method With Subjective Preferences and Objective Information for Emergency Decision Making
Jing Zheng, Yingming Wang, Shengqun Chen
2018, 5(3): 749-757. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2016.7510232
Abstract(994) HTML (777) PDF(47)
Case-based reasoning (CBR) is one of the best methods for generating an effective solution in an emergency. In recent years, some methods for generating emergency alternatives have been included in practical CBR applications, but there have been no in-depth studies of these processes. In this study, we propose a new method for dynamic case retrieval with subjective preferences and objective information, which considers the personal preferences of the decision makers and changes in the attributes of the emergency as the situation develops. First, we present a formula for calculating the case similarity and changing trends in the case considered, where similar cases are obtained. Next, we describe a method for measuring the overall assessment value with respect to similar historical cases, which is obtained by aggregating the case similarity, the utility case similarity, the first response time, and the implementation effect. The subjective preferences and objective information are also integrated in the decision-making process. Finally, we present a case study based on the emergency response to a fire in a highrise building, which illustrates the applicability and feasibility of the proposed method.
Refined Jensen-Based Multiple Integral Inequality and Its Application to Stability of Time-Delay Systems
Jidong Wang, Zhanshan Wang, Sanbo Ding, Huaguang Zhang
2018, 5(3): 758-764. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511087
Abstract(1185) HTML (777) PDF(127)
This paper investigates the stability of time-delay systems via a multiple integral approach. Based on the refined Jensen-based inequality, a novel multiple integral inequality is proposed. Applying the multiple integral inequality to estimate the derivative of Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with multiple integral terms, a novel stability condition is formulated for the linear time-delay systems. Two numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the improvements of our results.