A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation
Volume 7 Issue 5
Sep.  2020

IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica

  • JCR Impact Factor: 6.171, Top 11% (SCI Q1)
    CiteScore: 11.2, Top 5% (Q1)
    Google Scholar h5-index: 51, TOP 8
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Yantao Tian, Yanbo Zhao, Yiran Shi, Xuanhao Cao and Ding-Li Yu, "The Indirect Shared Steering Control Under Double Loop Structure of Driver and Automation," IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1403-1416, Sept. 2020. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911639
Citation: Yantao Tian, Yanbo Zhao, Yiran Shi, Xuanhao Cao and Ding-Li Yu, "The Indirect Shared Steering Control Under Double Loop Structure of Driver and Automation," IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1403-1416, Sept. 2020. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911639

The Indirect Shared Steering Control Under Double Loop Structure of Driver and Automation

doi: 10.1109/JAS.2019.1911639
Funds:  This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1664263)
More Information
  • Due to the critical defects of techniques in fully autonomous vehicles, man-machine cooperative driving is still of great significance in today’s transportation system. Unlike the previous shared control structure, this paper introduces a double loop structure which is applied to indirect shared steering control between driver and automation. In contrast to the tandem indirect shared control, the parallel indirect shared control put the authority allocation system of steering angle into the framework to allocate the corresponding weighting coefficients reasonably and output the final desired steering angle according to the current deviation of vehicle and the accuracy of steering angles. Besides, the active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is also added in the frame in order to track the desired steering angle fleetly and accurately as well as restrain the internal and external disturbances effectively which including the steering friction torque, wind speed and ground interference etc. Eventually, we validated the advantages of double loop framework through three sets of double lane change and slalom experiments, respectively. Exactly as we expected, the simulation results show that the double loop structure can effectively reduce the lateral displacement error caused by the driver or the controller, significantly improve the tracking precision and keep great performance in trajectory tracking characteristics when driving errors occur in one of driver and controller.

     

  • loading
  • [1]
    J. Smisek, E. Sunil, M. M. van Paassen, D. A. Abbink, and M. Mulder, “Neuromuscular-system-based tuning of a haptic shared control interface for UAV teleoperation,” IEEE Trans. Human-Machine Systems, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 449–461, Aug. 2017. doi: 10.1109/THMS.2016.2616280
    [2]
    Z. Li, S. Zhao, J. Duan, C. Y. Su, C. Yang, and X. Zhao, “Human cooperative wheelchair with brain-machine interaction based on shared control strategy,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 185–195, Feb. 2017. doi: 10.1109/TMECH.2016.2606642
    [3]
    Y. Li, K. P. Tee, W. L. Chan, R. Yan, Y. Chua, and D. K. Limbu, “Continuous role adaptation for human-robot shared control,” IEEE Trans. Robotics, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 672–681, Jun. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TRO.2015.2419873
    [4]
    F. Mars, M. Deroo, and J. M. Hoc, “Analysis of human-machine cooperation when driving with different degrees of haptic shared control,” IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 324–333, Jul. 2014. doi: 10.1109/TOH.2013.2295095
    [5]
    T. T. Tian, Z. S. Hou, S. D. Liu, and Z. D. Deng, “Model-free adaptive control based lateral control of self-driving car,” Acta Automatica Sinica, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 1931–1940, 2017.
    [6]
    D. A. Abbink, M. Mulder, and E. R. Boer, “Haptic shared control: Smoothly shifting control authority?” Cogn. Technol. Work, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 19–28, Mar. 2012. doi: 10.1007/s10111-011-0192-5
    [7]
    T. Wada, K. Sonoda, T. Okasaka, and T. Saito, “Authority transfer method from automated to manual driving via haptic shared control,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Oct. 2016, pp. 2659–2664.
    [8]
    Y. Koo, J. Kim, and W. Han, “A method for driving control authority transition for cooperative autonomous vehicle,” in Proc. IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symp., Jun. 2015, pp. 394–399.
    [9]
    A. T. Nguyen, C. Sentouh, and J. C. Popieul, “Sensor reduction for driver-automation shared steering control via an adaptive authority allocation strategy,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 5–16, Feb. 2018. doi: 10.1109/TMECH.2017.2698216
    [10]
    R. Li, Y. Li, S. E. Li, E. Burdet, and B. Cheng, “Driver-automation indirect shared control of highly automated vehicles with intention-aware authority transition,” in Proc. IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symp., Jun. 2017, pp. 26–32.
    [11]
    A. T. Nguyen, C. Sentouh, J. C. Popieul, and B. Soualmi, “Shared lateral control with on-line adaptation of the automation degree for driver steering assist system: A weighting design approach,” in Proc. 54th IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, Dec. 2015, pp. 857–862.
    [12]
    P. Griffiths and R. B. Gillespie, “Shared control between human and machine: Haptic display of automation during manual control of vehicle heading,” in Proc. 12th Int. Symp. Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, Mar. 2004, pp. 358–366.
    [13]
    P. G. Griffiths and R. B. Gillespie, “Sharing control between humans and automation using haptic interface: Primary and secondary task performance benefits,” Human Factors, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 574, 2005. doi: 10.1518/001872005774859944
    [14]
    M. Flad, J. Otten, S. Schwab, and S. Hohmann, “Steering driver assistance system: A systematic cooperative shared control design approach,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Oct. 2014, pp. 3585–3592.
    [15]
    S. M. Petermeijer, D. A. Abbink, M. Mulder, and J. C. F. de Winter, “The effect of haptic support systems on driver performance: A literature survey,” IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 467–479, Oct. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TOH.2015.2437871
    [16]
    T. Melman, J. de Winter, and D. Abbink, “Does haptic steering guidance instigate speeding? A driving simulator study into causes and remedies” Accident Analysis &Prevention, vol. 98, pp. 372–387, 2017.
    [17]
    B. Soualmi, C. Sentouh, J. Popieul, and S. Debernard, “Automationdriver cooperative driving in presence of undetected obstacles,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 24, pp. 106–119, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.conengprac.2013.11.015
    [18]
    A. Balachandran, M. Brown, S. M. Erlien, and J. C. Gerdes, “Predictive haptic feedback for obstacle avoidance based on model predictive control,” IEEE Trans. Automation Science and Engineering, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 26–31, Jan. 2016. doi: 10.1109/TASE.2015.2498924
    [19]
    S. M. Erlien, S. Fujita, and J. C. Gerdes, “Shared steering control using safe envelopes for obstacle avoidance and vehicle stability,” IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 441–451, Feb. 2016. doi: 10.1109/TITS.2015.2453404
    [20]
    C. Guo, C. Sentouh, J. C. Popieul, and J. B. Hau, “MPC-based shared steering control for automated driving systems,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Oct. 2017, pp. 129–134.
    [21]
    H. Y. Guo, L. H. Song, J. Liu, F.-Y. Wang, et al., “Hazard-evaluation-oriented moving horizon parallel steering control for driver-automation collaboration during automated driving,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1062–1073, 2018.
    [22]
    A. T. Nguyen, C. Sentouh, and J. C. Popieul, “Driver-automation cooperative approach for shared steering control under multiple system constraints: Design and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 3819–3830, May 2017. doi: 10.1109/TIE.2016.2645146
    [23]
    Z. Ercan, A. Carvalho, M. Gokasan, and F. Borrelli, “Modeling, identification, and predictive control of a driver steering assistance system,” IEEE Trans. Human-Machine Systems, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 700–710, Oct. 2017. doi: 10.1109/THMS.2017.2717881
    [24]
    C. Guo, C. Sentouh, J.-C. Popieul, and J.-B. Hau, “Predictive shared steering control for driver override in automated driving: A simulator study,” Transportation Research Part F:Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.trf.2017.12.005
    [25]
    H. Muslim, M. Itoh, and M. P. Pacaux-Lemoine, “Driving with shared control: How support system performance impacts safety,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Oct. 2016, pp. 582–587.
    [26]
    L. Saleh, P. Chevrel, F. Claveau, J. F. Lafay, and F. Mars, “Shared steering control between a driver and an automation: Stability in the presence of driver behavior uncertainty,” IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 974–983, Jun. 2013. doi: 10.1109/TITS.2013.2248363
    [27]
    R. Li, S. Li, H. Gao, K. Li, B. Cheng, D. Li, R. Li, S. Li, H. Gao, and K. Li, “Effects of human adaptation and trust on shared control for driver-automation cooperative driving,” in Proc. Intelligent & Connected Vehicles Symp., 2017.
    [28]
    F.-Y. Wang, N. N. Zheng, D. Cao, C. M. Martinez, L. Li, and T. Liu, “Parallel driving in cpss: A unified approach for transport automation and vehicle intelligence,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 577–587, 2017. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2017.7510598
    [29]
    T. Liu, B. Tian, Y. Ai, L. Li, D. Cao, and F.-Y. Wang, “Parallel reinforcement learning: A framework and case study,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 827–835, Jul. 2018. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2018.7511144
    [30]
    R. Rajamani, Vehicle Dynamics and Control, Springer Science, 2006.
    [31]
    Y.-G. Xi, D.-W. Li, and S. Lin, “Model predictive control status and challenges,” Acta Automatica Sinica, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 222–236, 2013. doi: 10.1016/S1874-1029(13)60024-5
    [32]
    B. Ding, M. T. Cychowski, Y. Xi, W. Cai, and B. Huang, “Model predictive control,” J. Control Science &Engineering, vol. 2012, no. 8, pp. 5, 2012.
    [33]
    F. Khne, W. Fetter, L. Joao, and M. Gomes, “Model predictive control of a mobile robot using linearization,” in Proc. Mechatronics & Robotics, pp. 6, 2004.
    [34]
    A. J. Pick and D. J. Cole, “Neuromuscular dynamics and the vehicle steering task,” in Proc. 18th IAVSD Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and on Tracks, 2004.
    [35]
    H. Y. Ma and J. B. Su, “Uncalibrated robotic 3D hand-eye coordination based on auto disturbance rejection controller,” Acta Automatica Sinica, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 400–406, 2004.
    [36]
    Y. Guo, B. Jiang, and Y. Zhang, “A novel robust attitude control for quadrotor aircraft subject to actuator faults and wind gusts,” IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 292–300, 2018.
    [37]
    N. Sang, M. X. Wei, and Y. Bai, “Control of vehicle active front steering based on active disturbance rejection feedback controller,” Trans. Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 461–468, 2015.
    [38]
    Y. Li and C. Hui, “Application of active disturbance rejection control strategy for active front wheel steering control,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering, 2010, pp. 3566–3569.
    [39]
    J. Han, “Nonlinear PID controller,” Acta Automatica Sinica, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 487–490, 1994.
    [40]
    J. Han and W. Wang, “Nonlinear tracking-differentiator,” J. Systems Science &Mathematical Sciences, vol. 14, no. 2, 1994.
    [41]
    J. Han and L. Yuan, “The discrete form of tracking-differentiator,” J. Systemsence &Mathematicalences, vol. 19, no. 3, 1999.
    [42]
    J. Q. Han, “Nonlinear state error feedback control law-nlsef,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Electronics, Informations, and Commumications, 1995, pp. 1–5.
    [43]
    J. Q. Han, “The ‘extended state observer’ of a class of uncertain systems,” Control Decis., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 85–88, 1995.
    [44]
    J. Q. Han, “A new type of controller: NLPID,” Control &Decision, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 401–407, 1994.
    [45]
    C. C. Macadam, “Understanding and modeling the human driver,” Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 40, no. 1–3, pp. 101–134, 2003. doi: 10.1076/vesd.40.1.101.15875
    [46]
    A. J. Pick and D. J. Cole, “A mathematical model of driver steering control including neuromuscular dynamics,” J. Dynamic Systems Measurement &Control, vol. 130, no. 3, 2008.
    [47]
    S. E. Li, Z. Jia, K. Li, and B. Cheng, “Fast online computation of a model predictive controller and its application to fuel economyoriented adaptive cruise control,” IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1199–1209, Jun. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TITS.2014.2354052
    [48]
    C. F. Zong and K. H. Guo, “Objective evaluation index for handling and stability of vehicle,” Nat. Sci. J. Jilin Univ. Technol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2000.

Catalog

    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(20)  / Tables(5)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (2409) PDF downloads(62) Cited by()

    Highlights

    • The indirect shared control under double loop framework is proposed, which divides driver and controller into two independent closed loops so as to obtain the weighted steering angle through authority allocation system.
    • The steering angle arbitration system based on fuzzy inference rules is proposed, which can reduce the impact of faulty operations of driver or controller on driving safety.
    • The active disturbance rejection controller ADRC is used to restrain disturbances and improve the tracking precision of steering angle.

    /

    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
    Return
    Return