A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation
Volume 8 Issue 12
Dec.  2021

IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica

  • JCR Impact Factor: 6.171, Top 11% (SCI Q1)
    CiteScore: 11.2, Top 5% (Q1)
    Google Scholar h5-index: 51, TOP 8
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
Mamta, Brij B. Gupta, Kuan-Ching Li, Victor C. M. Leung, Kostas E. Psannis and Shingo Yamaguchi, "Blockchain-Assisted Secure Fine-Grained Searchable Encryption for a Cloud-Based Healthcare Cyber-Physical System," IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1877-1890, Dec. 2021. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004003
Citation: Mamta, Brij B. Gupta, Kuan-Ching Li, Victor C. M. Leung, Kostas E. Psannis and Shingo Yamaguchi, "Blockchain-Assisted Secure Fine-Grained Searchable Encryption for a Cloud-Based Healthcare Cyber-Physical System," IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1877-1890, Dec. 2021. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004003

Blockchain-Assisted Secure Fine-Grained Searchable Encryption for a Cloud-Based Healthcare Cyber-Physical System

doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004003
More Information
  • The concept of sharing of personal health data over cloud storage in a healthcare-cyber physical system has become popular in recent times as it improves access quality. The privacy of health data can only be preserved by keeping it in an encrypted form, but it affects usability and flexibility in terms of effective search. Attribute-based searchable encryption (ABSE) has proven its worth by providing fine-grained searching capabilities in the shared cloud storage. However, it is not practical to apply this scheme to the devices with limited resources and storage capacity because a typical ABSE involves serious computations. In a healthcare cloud-based cyber-physical system (CCPS), the data is often collected by resource-constraint devices; therefore, here also, we cannot directly apply ABSE schemes. In the proposed work, the inherent computational cost of the ABSE scheme is managed by executing the computationally intensive tasks of a typical ABSE scheme on the blockchain network. Thus, it makes the proposed scheme suitable for online storage and retrieval of personal health data in a typical CCPS. With the assistance of blockchain technology, the proposed scheme offers two main benefits. First, it is free from a trusted authority, which makes it genuinely decentralized and free from a single point of failure. Second, it is computationally efficient because the computational load is now distributed among the consensus nodes in the blockchain network. Specifically, the task of initializing the system, which is considered the most computationally intensive, and the task of partial search token generation, which is considered as the most frequent operation, is now the responsibility of the consensus nodes. This eliminates the need of the trusted authority and reduces the burden of data users, respectively. Further, in comparison to existing decentralized fine-grained searchable encryption schemes, the proposed scheme has achieved a significant reduction in storage and computational cost for the secret key associated with users. It has been verified both theoretically and practically in the performance analysis section.


  • loading
  • [1]
    Q. Zheng, S. Xu, and G. Ateniese, “VABKS: Verifiable attribute-based keyword search over outsourced encrypted data,” in Proc. IEEE Infocom, 2014, pp. 522–530.
    W. Sun, S. Yu, W. Lou, Y. T. Hou, and H. Li, “Protecting your right: Attribute-based keyword search with fine-grained owner-enforced search authorization in the cloud,” in Proc. IEEE Infocom Conf. Computer Communications, 2014, pp. 226–234.
    Mamta and B. B. Gupta, “An efficient KP design framework of attribute-based searchable encryption for user level revocation in cloud,” Concurr. Comput. Pract. Exp., p. e5291.
    Mamta and B. B. Gupta, “Secure fine-grained keyword search with efficient user revocation and traitor tracing in the cloud,” J. Organ. End User Comput., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 112–137, 2020. doi: 10.4018/joeuc.2020100106
    Y. Miao, J. Ma, X. Liu, F. Wei, Z. Liu, and X. A. Wang, “m 2-ABKS: Attribute-based multi-keyword search over encrypted personal health records in multi-owner setting,” J. Med. Syst., vol. 40, no. 11, p. 246, 2016.
    C. Guo, R. Zhuang, Y. Jie, Y. Ren, T. Wu, and K.-K. R. Choo, “Fine-grained database field search using attribute-based encryption for e-healthcare clouds,” J. Med. Syst., vol. 40, no. 11, p. 235, 2016.
    Z. Chen, F. Zhang, P. Zhang, et al., “Verifiable keyword search for secure big data-based mobile healthcare networks with fine-grained authorization control,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 87, pp. 712–724, 2018.
    Mamta and B. B. Gupta, “An attribute-based keyword search for m-health networks,” J. Comput. Virol. Hacking Tech., pp. 1–16, 2020.
    Y. Miao, R. Deng, X. Liu, K.-K. R. Choo, H. Wu, and H. Li, “Multi-authority attribute-based keyword search over encrypted cloud data,” IEEE Trans. Dependable Secur. Comput., 2019. DOI: 10.1109/TDSC.2019.2935044
    L. Chen, W.-K. Lee, C.-C. Chang, K.-K. R. Choo, and N. Zhang, “Blockchain based searchable encryption for electronic health record sharing,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 95, pp. 420–429, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.future.2019.01.018
    S. Cao, G. Zhang, P. Liu, X. Zhang, and F. Neri, “Cloud-assisted secure eHealth systems for tamper-proofing EHR via blockchain,” Inf. Sci. (Ny)., vol. 485, pp. 427–440, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2019.02.038
    Y. Wang, A. Zhang, P. Zhang, and H. Wang, “Cloud-assisted EHR sharing with security and privacy preservation via consortium blockchain,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 136704–136719, 2019. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2943153
    R. Guo, H. Shi, Q. Zhao, and D. Zheng, “Secure attribute-based signature scheme with multiple authorities for blockchain in electronic health records systems,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 11676–11686, 2018. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2801266
    C. Esposito, M. Ficco, and B. B. Gupta, “Blockchain-based authentication and authorization for smart city applications,” Inf. Process. Manag., vol. 58, no. 2, p. 102468, 2021.
    B. Waters, “Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption: An expressive, efficient, and provably secure realization,” in Int. Workshop on Public Key Cryptography, 2011, pp. 53–70.
    A. Beimel and ע. בימל, Secure Schemes for Secret Sharing and Key Distribution. Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computer Science, 1996.
    C. L. Stergiou, K. E. Psannis, and B. B. Gupta, “IoT-based big data secure management in the fog over a 6G wireless network,” IEEE Internet Things J., 2020. DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2020.3033131
    D. Li, L. Deng, B. B. Gupta, H. Wang, and C. Choi, “A novel CNN based security guaranteed image watermarking generation scenario for smart city applications,” Inf. Sci. (Ny)., vol. 479, pp. 432–447, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2018.02.060
    S. Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system (White Paper), ” [Online]. Available: https//bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf, 2008.
    A. Lewko and B. Waters, “Decentralizing attribute-based encryption,” in Proc. Annual. Int. Conf. Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, 2011, pp. 568–588.
    Y. Rouselakis and B. Waters, “Efficient statically-secure large-universe multi-authority attribute-based encryption,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Financial Cryptography and Data Security, 2015, pp. 315–332.
    Q. Xu, C. Tan, W. Zhu, Y. Xiao, Z. Fan, and F. Cheng, “Decentralized attribute-based conjunctive keyword search scheme with online/offline encryption and outsource decryption for cloud computing,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.future.2019.02.067
    A. De Caro and V. Iovino, “jPBC: Java pairing based cryptography, ” in Proc. IEEE Symp. Computers and Communications, 2011, pp. 850–855.


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(5)  / Tables(4)

    Article Metrics

    Article views (843) PDF downloads(73) Cited by()


    • A blockchain assisted fine-grained searchable encryption framework is proposed for healthcare cloud-based cyber-physical system (CCPS).
    • The proposed framework does not require any trusted entity to operate.
    • The consensus nodes are responsible for initializing the system and generating the partial search tokens in a decentralized manner, which are considered the most computational intensive and most frequent operations.
    • The efficiency claims have been validated theoretically by performing detailed asymptotic analysis and by practically implementing the system using JPBC library.


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint