A journal of IEEE and CAA , publishes high-quality papers in English on original theoretical/experimental research and development in all areas of automation
Volume 8 Issue 12
Dec.  2021

IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica

• JCR Impact Factor: 6.171, Top 11% (SCI Q1)
CiteScore: 11.2, Top 5% (Q1)
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Article Contents
Sanjeev Kumar Dwivedi, Ruhul Amin and Satyanarayana Vollala, "Blockchain-Based Secured IPFS-Enable Event Storage Technique With Authentication Protocol in VANET," IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1913-1922, Dec. 2021. doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004225
 Citation: Sanjeev Kumar Dwivedi, Ruhul Amin and Satyanarayana Vollala, "Blockchain-Based Secured IPFS-Enable Event Storage Technique With Authentication Protocol in VANET," IEEE/CAA J. Autom. Sinica, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1913-1922, Dec. 2021.

# Blockchain-Based Secured IPFS-Enable Event Storage Technique With Authentication Protocol in VANET

##### doi: 10.1109/JAS.2021.1004225
• In recent decades, intelligent transportation systems (ITS) have improved drivers’ safety and have shared information (such as traffic congestion and accidents) in a very efficient way. However, the privacy of vehicles and the security of event information is a major concern. The problem of secure sharing of event information without compromising the trusted third party (TTP) and data storage is the main issue in ITS. Blockchain technologies can resolve this problem. A work has been published on blockchain-based protocol for secure sharing of events and authentication of vehicles. This protocol addresses the issue of the safe storing of event information. However, authentication of vehicles solely depends on the cloud server. As a result, their scheme utilizes the notion of partially decentralized architecture. This paper proposes a novel decentralized architecture for the vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) without the cloud server. This work also presents a protocol for securing event information and vehicle authentication using the blockchain mechanism. In this protocol, the registered user accesses the event information securely from the interplanetary file system (IPFS). We incorporate the IPFS, along with blockchain, to store the information in a fully distributed manner. The proposed protocol is compared with the state-of-the-art. The comparison provides desirable security at a reasonable cost. The evaluation of the proposed smart contract in terms of cost (GAS) is also discussed.

• 1 No.1 indicates the vehicles and $RSU$ registration performed by the $RSU$ and network administrator, respectively. No.2 indicates that the vehicle collects the event information using its sensing units and sends it to the nearest $RSU$ for further processing. No.$3$ indicates $RSU$ validates the event information and executes the smart contracts for creating the new block. No.4 and No.$5$ indicate that verified event information is published on $IPFS$, and in return, $IPFS$ provides the hash of that event to $RSU$. No.$6$ indicates the user registration and authentication procedure. No.$7$ indicates that after the user’s successful authentication, $RSU$ provides the hash of the event to the user. No.$8$ and No.9 indicate the user request for event details from IPFS, and in return, IPFS provides the event detail to the user.
2 Proof-of-work is the mechanism that provides the consensus (common agreement) among the decentralized network nodes. Its principle is based on a solution (the current hash of a block) that is difficult to find, but at the same time, verification is easy for that solution. Here, the nodes of the decentralized network are continuously engaged in finding a nonce value which, when hashed with the previous block hash with necessary parameters, produces a resultant lesser than the predefined threshold.
3 $H_{1}$ is a hash value, which is computed by hashing pairs of $A_{VEH_{b}}$ and $ID_{RSU_{a}}$.4 $H_{2}$ is a hash value, which is computed by hashing pairs of $C_{VEH_{b}}$ and $R_{RSU_{a}}$.5 $H_{3}$ is a hash value, which is computed by hashing of $TID_{VEH_{b}}$.6 $H_{4}$ is a hash value, which is computed by hashing of $E_{m}$, whereas $h(\cdot)$ is one way hash function (e.g., SHA-256).
4 $H_{2}$ is a hash value, which is computed by hashing pairs of $C_{VEH_{b}}$ and $R_{RSU_{a}}$.
5 $H_{3}$ is a hash value, which is computed by hashing of $TID_{VEH_{b}}$.
6 $H_{4}$ is a hash value, which is computed by hashing of $E_{m}$, whereas $h(\cdot)$ is one way hash function (e.g., SHA-256).
7 P-I : Registration of vehicle and RSU; P-II : Event generation and authentication; $T_{pg}$ : Time required by PKG function; $T_{pf}$ : Time required by PUF; $T_{e}$ : Time required to encrypt parameters; $T_{d}$ : Time required to decrypt parameters; $T_{h}$ : Time required by One-way hash function; $T_{\delta_{1}}$ : Time required for searching the parameters in ledger; $T_{\delta_{2}}$ : Time required for matching the required conditions;
8 In Javed et al. and Shi et al. approach, $n$ and $t$ is the cryptoid of vehicles, and time-stamp, respectively. For comparison, we consider $n$ and $t$ is length of 32 bytes and 4 bytes.
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